The Applied Sciences
Application of design, management and integration of systems to facilitate improvement in processes and output along with functions of systems. Engineering is also related to invention, innovation, building and improvement of machines, structures, devices, materials and processes.
Essential Engineering – Teaching Kids to Think Like Engineers
Engineering instructions build on young student’s natural problem‐solving skills to prepare a future generation of critical thinkers.
Our society depends upon engineers to design every aspect of our lives; where we live, what we drive, how we communicate and even what we eat, but India’s primary and secondary education systems are not producing enough critical thinkers to keep up with the demand of a knowledge based society.
Engineering is not the kind of content that can be evaluated with multiple-choice tests, the way that English literature and history are. It is not enough to measure a student’s grasp of the subject matter; assessing how that student approaches a problem or task to find workable solutions is more important.
The Science Garage designed ‘Elementary Engineering’ in partnership with Museum of Science in Boston to provide an overlooked opportunity to teach kids how to work together and solve problems at a very young age.
Instead of a concrete curriculum or a test that students must be able to pass, the science and engineering standards lay out benchmarks for what concepts students should know at particular grade levels, building on the concepts every successive year. They up the ante from previous iterations of science standards by integrating engineering ideas into math and arts classes and applying engineering skills to real-world scenarios so students are better prepared for such experiences outside of school. This means instead of teaching facts that children can just as easily Google; science education should enable students to evaluate and select reliable sources of scientific information.
The curriculum is open-ended, recognizing that teachers need the flexibility to teach different students in different ways. Many K-to-12 teachers are not aware of how engineering can be used to inspire and improve student performance. The Science Garage has composed interactive lessons that empower kindergarten through tenth-grade teachers to introduce topics that may go beyond their areas of expertise or familiarity.
For example, one unit introduces students to the power and behavior of moving air; then, has them design mechanical windmills to turn that movement into usable energy. In this way, the lessons show children how to grasp real-world problems and demonstrate how engineers use math and science to frame, analyze and eventually solve those problems. Each failure informs a future design that brings an engineer one step closer to success.
Agriculture, Food Science and Fisheries
The art and science of cultivation of plants, animals, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and allied products to sustain, develop and enhance quality of human life. It is imperative to study the development of agriculture and its practices that date back to thousands of years.
Food science and fisheries are allied sciences of agriculture that enhance the quality and variety of foods available to the consumers. Food science is the study of physical, biochemical constitution of food and concepts underlying food processing and innovations in improving quality of food on the table of the populace. ‘Fisheries’ refer to the rearing of fish through fish farming or aquaculture as well as capturing wild fish for the purpose of consumption.
Understanding the past story of human development, dietary patterns, climate, plant diseases and shift in dietary patterns, nutrition in relation to cultivation will enable future innovations in agriculture and allied sciences.
Forestry and Horticulture
It is important to study how plants improve our daily lives; the interaction of plants in human environments has many implications in improvement of quality of life for communities. The improvement in quality of life is diverse, dynamic and ranges from aesthetics to improvement in quality of air we breathe. Applications such as environmental horticulture and urban forestry provide easy and efficient solutions to everyday problems.
Medical science is a combination of both basic and applied sciences; its phenomenal history involves the practice of medicine as both an art as well as a science. Medical science includes an array of health care practices evolved to maintain, restore health by prevention and treatment of illness. The scope and reach of human medical sciences have an overlap over many other allied fields and there are varied types of specialties involved in the study and practice of medical science.
Statistics is the study of data collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation and organization. So, essentially statistics is a body of methods used to gauge uncertainty. The method of Modern science is through and through based on statistics through hypothesis testing, statistical significance and probability. Scientific data rarely leads to absolute conclusions due to human, machine, and other forms of errors. Statistics quantifies such variability and allows scientists to make approximate and accurate details about their data. Involving statistical knowhow and the method of science is a basic requirement in science education in current times.
Archaeology and Applied Linguistics
Archaeology is the study of human activity from the past involving environmental data and recovered material cultures to include architecture, artifacts, culture and is based on cross disciplinary research. It unravels human behavior and history through surveying, excavation, cultural evolution and data analysis. Archaeology is often considered a social science or humanity or an applied science based on the scope of the study.
Applied linguistics is inter disciplinary field of linguistics with application in education, psychology, anthropology, sociology solving language related real world problems. It examines the structure of language and its role in communication and explores how children acquire language. Studies in applied linguistics how the skills of second-language speakers develop. For example, it is very useful to understand why a child is not able to read or write in English or any other language and find a solution to the issue. Applied linguistics also investigates how the social or cultural environment interacts with language and what kind of implications it has for a target population.
It is important to introduce children to such varied fields and enable them to understand their own interests there by leading to development of passion in fundamental, applied and cross disciplinary sciences so as to prepare them for a future that cannot be predicted and for circumstances that cannot be foreseen.